Basically, this is a measure of the hydrophobicity v. hydrophilicity of a compound. It is extremely useful when combined with the pI of your molecule to predict retention times.

The Octanol-Water Partition Coefficient is a physical property used to describe a chemical’s lipophilic or hydrophobic properties. It is the ratio of the concentration of your compound in the octanol phase to its concentration in the aqueous phase at equilibrium. It is commonly measured and labeled as Log P. Compounds with large non polar structures usually have high logP values and for compounds with highly polar groups, it is usually very low.

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